The discussion paper scrutinises practices of EU Member States concerning risk profiling and outreach activities by building on an extensive literature review on tackling long-term unemployment. Research suggests that the role of the caseworker is a key success factor throughout the different profiling approaches and outreach activities. Therefore, although scientific evidence on the effectiveness of risk profiling and targeting support is mostly absent, profiling activities used as a complementary practice to support caseworker assessment and outreach work tailored to the needs of vulnerable people are both recommended. Still, outreach and profiling activities are only the starting points: what needs to follow are comprehensive activation
measures to best serve the most vulnerable throughout the entire social inclusion process.