Social circumstances are among the strongest determinants of health. There is a gender paradox, however. Greater wealth brings greater health. Women have lower socioeconomic status than do men throughout the world. Never the less, universally, they outlive men. Women also seem to be less vulnerable to the health effects of changes in income. I will explore this, and many other examples of sex/gender and health. We will discuss specific measures of, for example, socioeconomic status and whether they have different meanings for women and men. I will also examine how we can move beyond the two categories of men and women to recognize heterogeneity, that is, within group differences, and reflect on how to avoid embedding gender bias in research questions, methodology and analyses.